Description  Item
Plant Constants
The tables given hereafter are a guide only and apart from “Trucks and Haulage”, are based on information given in the Reference Handbook issued by the “Caterpillar Tractor Co”. All plant references are to “Caterpillar” equipment.
Density and Load Factors

Whilst measured quantities are generally ‘in situ’ or ‘in place’ quantities, the actual quantity to be removed and/or spread and levelled is, in practical terms, the ‘loose’ volume.

The following table indicates the approximate density (weight) and load factor of common materials.

Approximate Density and Load Factor of Common Materials

 

Density and Load Factors

Material State of Material Density Density
Insitu kg/m3 Load Factor Loose kg/m3
Clay Dry excavated 1,840 0.81 1,480
Wet excavated 2,080 0.8 1,660
Clay and Gravel Dry 1,660 0.71 1,420
Wet 1,840 0.9 1,540
Decomposed Rock 75% Rock, 25% Earth 2,790 0.7 1,960
50% Rock, 50% Earth 2,280 0.75 1,720
25% Rock, 75% Earth 1,960 0.8 1,570
Earth Wet excavated 2,020 0.79 1,600
Gravel Pitrun 2,170 0.89 1,930
Dry 1,690 0.89 1,510
Sand Dry, loose 1,600 0.89 1,420
Wet 2,080 0.89 1,840
Sand and Gravel Dry 1,930 0.89 1,720
Wet 2,230 0.91 2,020
Stone Crushed 2,670 0.6 1,600
Top Soil 1,370 0.7 950

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